John Simpson Wilkins
email@example.com | evolvingthoughts.net
In Word format: Latest version
Doctor of Philosophy, History and Philosophy of Science jointly with the School of Botany, The University of Melbourne, 1997—2003 part-time, Awarded August 2004. The origins of species concepts: History, characters, modes, and synapomorphies; Supervisors: Gareth J. Nelson, Neil Thomason
Master of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 1992—1996 part-time; Evolutionary modelling of theory change in science; Supervisors: John Bigelow, Kim Sterelny
Graduate Diploma in Computing, Part time — Chisholm Institute of Technology, Melbourne Australia 1985—1988
Bachelor of Arts (Honours), Philosophy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria 1980—1985; Major in philosophy, minor in history. Other subjects included German, Latin and English Literature, Full-time first year at Monash University 1980. Honours supervisors: John Bigelow and I. Tim Oakley.
First year of Bachelor of Theology (uncompleted) 1978—1979; Part-time. Subjects passed: Theology I, Old Testament I, New Testament I, Church History I.
Distinctions, Grants and Fellowships
ARC Postdoctoral Fellowship DP0984826, University of Sydney, 2009.
The University of Queensland Early Career Researcher grant 2008.
Writing Grant from UNSW 2011.
Postdoctoral fellowship with Paul Griffiths at the University of Queensland 2005.
Invited keynote speaker for the Naturalising Religion: Kazimierz Naturalist Workshop 2012 in Poland in July 2012.
Invited speaker at a conference on primatology and hybridism in Göttingen 2009
Invited commentator at a conference on religion and tolerance at Oxford 2010.
Presented and run sessions at international conferences in the United States, Canada, England and Australia. Regularly publish in top ranked journals.
Research Interests and Profile
Areas of Speciality
Philosophy and history of biology, with special reference to taxonomy and systematics, earth sciences, evolution, ecology, antievolutionary movements, theory structure and change, evolutionary psychology, cultural evolution and the evolution of religion.
Areas of Competence
Philosophy of religion, history of philosophy, general philosophy of science, history of science, history of astronomy, philosophy of history, philosophy of social science.
Publications and Presentations
As at 6 August 2012|
With Malte C. Ebach. In preparation and under contract. The Nature of Classification, New Directions in Philosophy of Science, ed. Stephen French. Palgrave Macmillan.
2009. Species: A History of the Idea, Berkeley: University of California Press.
2009. Defining Species: A Sourcebook from Antiquity to Today, Bern, New York: Peter Lang Press.
Ed. 2010. Intelligent design and religion as a natural phenomenon, The international library of essays on evolutionary thought. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Pub. Co. Introduction and selection of items for inclusion.
· Under review. Gods above: Naturalizing religion in terms of our shared ape social dominance behavior.
· Under review. Species, theories, phenomena and natural classification.
1. Forthcoming. Biological Essentialism and the Tidal Change of Natural Kinds. Science and Education.
2. 2012. Could God create Darwinian Accidents? Zygon 47 (1):30-42.
3. 2011. Are creationists rational? Synthese 178 (2):207-218.
4. 2011. Philosophically speaking, how many species concepts are there? Zootaxa 2765:58—60.
5. 2009. Darwin. In A Companion to the Philosophy of History and Historiography, edited by A. Tucker. Chichester UK: Wiley-Blackwell:405—415.
6. 2008. The adaptive landscape of science. Biology and Philosophy 23 (5):659—671.
7. 2008. The roles, reasons and restrictions of science blogs. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23 (8): 411—413.
8. 2007. The concept and causes of microbial species. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28(3): 329—348.
9. 2007. The dimensions, modes and definitions of species and speciation. Biology and Philosophy 22 (2): 247—266.
10. 2006. Species, Kinds, and Evolution. Reports of the National Center for Science Education 26 (4): 36—45.
11. 2005. A scientific modern amongst medieval species. University of Queensland Historical Proceedings Number 16: 1—5.
12. 2005. Is “meme” the new “idea”? Reflections on Aunger. Biology and Philosophy 20 (2—3): 585—598.
13. 2003. How to be a chaste species pluralist-realist: The origins of species modes and the Synapomorphic Species Concept. Biology and Philosophy 18: 621—638.
14. 2002. Darwinism as metaphor and analogy: language as a selection process. Selection: Molecules, Genes, Memes 3 (1): 57—74.
15. 1999. On choosing to evolve: strategies without a strategist. Journal of Memetics — Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission 3: <http://www.cpm.mmu.ac.uk/jom-emit/1999/vol3/wilkins_j2.html>.
16. 1999. Memes ain’t (just) in the head. Journal of Memetics — Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission 3: <http://www.cpm.mmu.ac.uk/jom-emit/1999/vol3/wilkins_j.html>.
17. 1998. What’s in a Meme? Reflections from the perspective of the history and philosophy of evolutionary biology. Journal of Memetics — Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission 2: 2—33 <http://www.cpm.mmu.ac.uk/jom-emit/1998/vol2/wilkins_js.html>.
18. 1998. The evolutionary structure of scientific theories. Biology and Philosophy 13 (4): 479—504.
1. Griffiths, Paul E, and John S. Wilkins. In press. When do evolutionary explanations of belief debunk belief? In Darwin in the 21st Century: Nature, Humanity, and God, edited by P. R. Sloan. Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame University Press.
2. Wilkins, John S., and Paul E. Griffiths. In press. Evolutionary debunking arguments in three domains: Fact, value, and religion. In A New Science of Religion, edited by J. Maclaurin and G. Dawes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
3. Wilkins, John S., Clem A. Stanyon, and Ian Musgrave. 2012. Selection without replicators: the origin of genes, and the replicator/interactor distinction in etiobiology. Biology and Philosophy 27 (2):215-239.
4. Wilkins, John S., and Gareth J. Nelson. 2008. Trémaux on species: A theory of allopatric speciation (and punctuated equilibrium) before Wagner. Hist. Phil. Life Sci. 30 (1): 179-206.
5. Hull, David L., and John S. Wilkins. 2005. “Replication.” In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta, 2005. Revised 2009.
6. Wilkins, John S., and Wesley R Elsberry. 2001. The advantages of theft over toil: the design inference and arguing from ignorance. Biology and Philosophy 16 (November): 711—724.
1. Forthcoming. Rise of the Planet of the Moralists. In Philosophy and the Planet of the Apes, ed. John Huss.
2. In review. Biological essentialism. In Philosophical Issues in Biology Education, History, Philosophy and Theory of the Life Sciences, ed. Kostas Kampourakis. Springer Books.
3. In press. The Salem Region: Two mindsets about science, in Philosophy of Pseudoscience, eds Maarten Baudry and Massimo Pigliucci. University of Chicago Press.
4. 2012. As árvores da lógica e a árvore da vida [Trees of logic and the tree of life]. In Em Torno de Darwin, edited by O. Pombo and M. Pina. Lisboa: Fim de Século:57-77.
5. 2010. The role of secularism in protecting religion. In The Australian Book of Atheism, edited by W. Bonett. Carlton North, Victoria: Scribe Publications:313-325.
6. 2008. Darwin as a Philosopher of History, The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy of History and Historiography, Tucker, A. (ed.). Blackwell Publications.
7. 2008. Ancestors. In The Open Laboratory: The Best Writing on Science Blogs 2007, edited by R. Cartwright, Chapel Hill, NC: Lulu.
8. 2007. The Demarcation Problem… Again. In The Open Laboratory: The Best Writing on Science Blogs 2006, edited by B. Zivkovic. Chapel Hill, NC: Lulu.
9. 2001. The appearance of Lamarckism in the evolution of culture. In Darwinism and evolutionary economics, edited by J. Laurent and J. Nightingale. Cheltenham UK: Edward Elgar, 160—183. Reprinted in 2009 Darwinism and Economics, edited by Geoffrey M. Hodgson, International Library of Critical Writings in Economics, series Editor: Mark Blaug. Cheltenham UK: Edward Elgar.
10. 1998. Brusic, Vladimir, John S. Wilkins, Clem A. Stanyon, and John Zeleznikow. Data learning: understanding biological data. In Merrill, G. and Pathak, D.K. (eds.), Knowledge sharing across biological and medical knowledge based systems: Papers from the 1998 AAAI Workshop. AAAI Technical Report WS-98-04.
Encyclopedia entries (3)
1. 2006. Encyclopedia of Anthropology entries: “The Ontology of Evolution”, “Memes”, and “Theory”. Ed. James Birx. SAGE Publications.
Book reviews and review articles
1. 2012. Getting over systematics: review of David M. Williams and Malte C. Ebach: Foundations of systematics and biogeography. Metascience?21 (2):383-386.
2. Wilkins, John S. 2012. [Review of:] The Species Problem: A Philosophical Analysis [by Richard Richards]. Systematic Biology 61 (2):362-363.
3. 2009. Evidence and Evolution: The Logic Behind the Science. [Review of Elliot Sober’s Evidence and Evolution]. Systematic Biology 58(5): 544-545.
4. 2007. Mayr’s Centenary Festschrift. [Review of Hey, Jody; Fitch, Walter M.; Ayala, Francisco J., Eds. 2005. Systematics and the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr’s 100th Anniversary.] Biology and Philosophy 22: 603—610.
5. 2007. Remembering Gould. Metascience 16 (1): 169—173. [Review of Vrba, Elisabeth S., and Niles Eldredge, Eds. Macroevolution: Diversity, Disparity, Contingency.]
6. 2006. Book Review: Ronald Amundson: The Role of the Embryo in Evolutionary Thought. Philosophy in Review, February 2006.
7. 2005. Book Review: Evolving Ethics. Neil Levy, What makes us moral? The Human Nature Review 5: 14—17.
8. 2005. Book Review: Tim Lewens, Organisms and Artifacts. Reports of the National Centre for Science Education, 25(5).
9. 2003. Book Review: Beethoven’s Anvil: Music in mind and culture, by William L. Benzon. The Human Nature Review 3: 53—54.
10. 2003. Book review: Frogs, flies and dandelions: the making of species, Menno Schilthuizen. Reports of the National Centre for Science Education 23 (1): 37—38.
11. 2003. Book review: Alfred Russel Wallace: a life, Peter Raby. Reports of the National Centre for Science Education 23 (1): 39.
12. 2002. Book Review: The Darwinian Revolution: Science red in tooth and claw, Michael Ruse. Reports of the National Centre for Science Education 22 (4): 33—34.
13. 2002. Book Review: Genes, Categories, and Species, Jody Hey. Biology and Philosophy. [Accepted but unpublished due to production error]
14. 2001. Defining evolution. Reports of the National Centre for Science Education 21 (1—2): 29—37.
15. 2001. Book Review — Robert T Pennock, Tower of Babel: the evidence against the new creationism. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 79 (July): 402—404.
1. 2007. Dissecting science: Does philosophy have a role in science today? COSMOS: The Science of Everything 18: 44—45.
2. 2007—2008. Buffon: an evolutionary thinker? Museum Quarterly (quarterly magazine of Auckland War Memorial Museum<span >) 113: 10—11.
Reviewing and editorial duties
· Editor of philosophy of biology for the PhilPapers archive, and in particular the topic on systematics. PhilPapers is a comprehensive directory of online philosophical articles and books by academic philosophers.
· On the editorial board of the scientific series Species and Systematics at the University of California Press.
· Regularly review for the following journals, most of which are top ranked in the 2010 ERA (* = A* and A):
- Acta Biotheoretica, Biology and Philosophy*
- Biological Theory
- British Journal for the Philosophy of Science*
- Canadian Journal of Philosophy*
- Evolution: Education and Outreach
- Journal of Applied Systems Studies
- Journal of Evolution and Technology*
- Journal of Evolutionary Economics*
- Philosophy in Review
- Philosophy of Science*
- Reports of The National Centre for Science Education in Washington DC
- Science & Education
- Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences*
- Systematic Biology*
- The Journal of Memetics — Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission
- · Acted as an external reviewer for philosophy of science books for publishers Acumen Publishing, and the University of California Press.
- · Reviewed grant proposals for the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, and the Research Foundation Flanders (Belgium).
- · Reviewed postgraduate theses for the Universities of Sydney, Auckland and Ghent.
1. Naturalising religion: Methodological considerations. Varieties of Representation: Kazimierz Naturalist Workshop 20, Krakow, Poland, invited speaker, 4 July 2012 (via Skype).
2. The role of classification in the natural sciences, Australasian Association of Philosophy Conference, Wollongong, Australia, 2 July 2012 (with Malte Ebach, UNSW).
3. Speacies: Finding peace in species concepts. 10th Invertebrate Biodiversity & Conservation / Society of Australian Systematic Biologists Conference, Melbourne, 7 December 2011.
4. Can God create Darwinian Accidents? Questioning God conference, University of Western Sydney 22 October 2011.
5. Species as phenomena, University of Sydney, 16 June 2011.
6. Commentary on Professor Ara Norenzayan, at Science and Religious Conflict Conference: Does Religion Lead to Tolerance or Intolerance? The University of Oxford, 17—19 May 2010.
7. Does Evolution Mean Religion is False? with Professor Paul E. Griffiths. Darwin in the 21st Century: Nature, Humanity, and God conference, Notre Dame University, November 2009.
8. Is religion an adaptation? Darwin in the 21st Century: Nature, Humanity, and God conference, Notre Dame University, November 2009.
9. Species concepts under hybridization, Hybridization in Primates — Evidence, Extent, Evolutionary Impact and Problems conference, in Göttingen, Germany, October 2009. Invited speaker.
10. Essentialism and natural kinds in biology, July 2009, International Society for the History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Biology conference in Brisbane.
11. Tree diagrams and tree thinking, Australasian Association for the History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Science conference 2009, Brisbane July 2009.
12. Are species theoretical objects? Australasian Association for the History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Science conference 2008, Melbourne, July 2008.
13. Is religion an adaptation? University of Sydney, August 2008.
14. Two dogmas of taxonomy, Systematics and Biodiversity: Concepts and Prospects; March 4—5, 2008, Arizona State University, Phoenix AZ. Invited speaker.
15. The Unseasonable Lateness of Being: or, Essentialism comes after Darwin, not before, ISHPSSB 2007, University of Exeter, UK, 2007.
16. Coordinator, Essentialism and classification session, International Society for the History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Science biennial conference, Exeter, 2007.
17. The Unseasonable Lateness of Being: or, Essentialism comes after Darwin, not before, 9 November 2006, University of California, Berkeley, HPS and Biosystematics lecture series.
18. Microbial species and lateral gene transfer, Philosophy of Microbiology Conference, Egenis, University of Exeter, UK, July 2006. Invited speaker.
19. A deflationary account of information in biology, Australasian Association for the History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Science 2007, ANU, July 2006.
20. Introduction to Biological Essentialism, Biological Essentialism Workshop, University of Queensland, 2005.
21. The Myth of Essentialism, July 2005, University of Hawaii at Manoa.
22. Natural Kinds and Natural Groups, July 2005, International Society for the History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Biology conference in Guelph, Canada.
23. Natural Kinds and Natural Groups, May 2005, History and Philosophy of Science, University of Melbourne.
24. The Synapomorphic Concept of Species, 2003, Australasian Association for the History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Science Association conference in Melbourne.
25. The Synapomorphic Concept of Species, 2002, Melbourne Museum, Systematics Forum.
26. The Synapomorphic Concept of Species, 2001 International Society for the History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Biology conference in Hamden, Connecticut.
27. The advantages of theft over toil, 2001 Australasian Association for the History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Science Association conference in Melbourne.
28. Species as classes, 1999 Australasian Association of Philosophy Conference, at the University of Melbourne.
29. Adaptationism and spandrels, 1998 Australasian Association for the History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Science Association conference in Adelaide.
30. Other conferences and workshops
31. Invited Participant: Edges & Boundaries of Biological Objects Workshop; March 13—15 2008, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.
32. Genetic Information Workshop, Australian National University, 11 September 1999, and in September 2000.
33. Respondent in First Queensland Biohumanities Conference (1QBC): The Conceptual Impact of the Genomic Revolution 14—15 October 2005.
Since competing the Ph.D in 2004, has been a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of Queensland (2005—2007) and an ARC Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Sydney (2009 — ARC DP0984826). In 2010 held the position of Associate Professor in Philosophy at Bond University.
Research only or teaching and administration — percentages
- 2006: 100% research
- 2007: 100% research
- 2008: 80% teaching, 20% research
- 2009: 100% research
- 2010: 85% teaching, 15% research
- 2011: first semester — 75% teaching, 25% research
- 2011—2012: second semester to now — ~15% research
The postdoctoral fellowships were conducted on a research-only basis. The appointment at Bond University was 85% teaching with approximately 15% research, and the teaching year in 2008 at the University of Queensland restricted research opportunities to around 20% of my time.
Study and research time prior to 2005 were limited by working full-time in a professional role as a manager of a large department of administrative staff, designers and artists.
Replacement lecturing, 2011, History, University of New South Wales; first semester — Darwin and History
Assistant Professor, Bond University, Philosophy, 2010; First and third semester — Reasoning Skills; First semester — Minds, Bodies and Machines; Third semester — Darwin, Society and Philosophy
Sessional Lecturer, Philosophy Stream, University of Queensland, 2008; Honours students (4), PhD Student (1); Second semester — Honours Coordinator
Lecturing, course design and tutoring for Introduction to Cognitive Science first year subject, Philosophy, University of Queensland.
Lecturing, course design, tutoring for Philosophy of the Life Sciences subject, Philosophy, University of Queensland. Second—fourth year subject.
Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Biohumanities Project, Philosophy, University of Queensland, 2005—2008
2007 — Lecturing, course design and tutoring for Introduction to Cognitive Science first year subject, Philosophy, University of Queensland.
2005 — Tutoring and 3 lectures in Philosophy of the Life Sciences subject, Philosophy, University of Queensland.
Associate at the Department of the History and Philosophy of Science, The University of Melbourne, 2004
2004 — 50% Course preparation, lectures and tutorials in Philosophy of Biology subject, History and Philosophy of Science, The University of Melbourne
Tutor: 2001 and 2002, Department of the History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Melbourne, in History of Astronomy.
2012, University of Melbourne, Philosophy of Biology Winter School: “Species Concepts”.
2008, University of Queensland
— Lecture in Science Communication subject. Thomas Kuhn.
— Lecture in Conservation Management subject. Science as a Way of Knowing.
2007, University of Queensland
— Lecture in Classical Philosophy subject. Aristotle’s biology.
— Lecture in Philosophy of the Life Sciences subject. Evolution of Religion.
2006, University of Queensland
— Lecture in Philosophy of the Life Sciences subject. Species concepts.
— “Expert commentator” for Philosophy of Science subject, on evolutionary psychology.
2005, University of Queensland
— “Expert commentator” for Philosophy of Science subject, on evolutionary psychology.
2004, The University of Melbourne
— Lecture to God and Science subject: “Intelligent Design”, History and Philosophy of Science subject.
— Advanced Studies (honours) students in the School of Botany, “Controversies in Science: Darwinism and the Public”, The University of Melbourne
Darwinism subject, History and Philosophy of Science, University of Melbourne:
2002 — “Linnaeus and Buffon”, “Lamarck and Cuvier”, “The Modern Synthesis”.
2001 — “Linnaeus and Buffon”
2005—2007 — Evolution reading group coordinator at University of Queensland.
Community Involvement / Administrative Activity
High media presence: appeared on Australian radio (ABC National and local stations twice) discussing the importance of philosophy in general (ABC Radio National in January 2010, interviewed by Rhys Muldoon) and the importance of secularism in the face of religious leaders’ criticism (ABC Local, for AM, April 2010)
Gave a 15 minute presentation on the false history species of concepts on Ockham’s Razor on ABC Radio National (January 2011), later broadcast on NPR in the USA.
Blog on the philosophy of science and religion, Evolving Thoughts (evolvingthoughts.net), is one of the oldest (9 years) and most widely read philosophy, and especially philosophy of science, blogs. It has a readership of in excess of 5—8000 readers per week on average (up to 1100 per day).
An older version at the influential Science Blogs site, not updated now for three years, continues to receive readers.
Published on the Guardian blog Punctuated Equilibrium on 20 October 2010, Scientific American guest blog on 25 May 2011, and in the Times Higher Education magazine on 16 June 2011. The revised Guardian piece was later published as a peer reviewed article (Zootaxa 2011).
Many outreach talks:
(2011) Can a Christian be a Darwinian? Socrates Cafe public lecture, Newtown, Sydney.
(2010) The University of Queensland, on “Pro: Agnosticism”, in the philosophy students association debate on belief in God.
(2009) Bond University on “Agnosticism and evolution”, to the Student Philosophy Club
The Gold Coast Film Club, commentary on several films.
(2008) Lecture in Science Communication subject on Thomas Kuhn.
Lecture in Conservation Management subject. Science as a Way of Knowing.
(2007) Talk to the campus Christian club on secularism.
Lecture in Classical Philosophy subject on Aristotle’s biology.
Lecture in Philosophy of the Life Sciences subject on the Evolution of Religion.
(2006) Lecture in Philosophy of the Life Sciences subject on Species concepts
“Expert commentator” for Philosophy of Science subject taught by Phil Dowe, on evolutionary psychology (also 2005);
Ran many committees, including the Monash University Open Day Committee, during pre-academic employment.
Honorary Fellow, The University of Melbourne, September 2012—present
Research Associate and coordinator of international IARPA contract on assessing the teaching of critical thinking using argument mapping. Contract preparation with Dr Neil Thomason, University of Melbourne, August 2011—present.
Visiting Fellow at the UNSW in the Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences School and the School of History and Philosophy, January 2011—June 2011.
Assistant Professor, Philosophy, Faculty of Humanities and the Social Sciences, Bond University, December 2009—December 2010
Honorary Associate in the School of Philosophical and Historical Inquiry, Faculty of Arts at the University of Sydney, December 2009—present
ARC Postdoctoral Research Fellow, in the School of Philosophical and Historical Inquiry, Faculty of Arts at the University of Sydney, January 2009 —December 2009 — Cognitive Accounts of the Evolution of Religion. This work was undertaken with funding from an Australian Research Council postdoctoral fellowship DP0984826.
Honorary Associate in the School of Philosophical and Historical Inquiry, Faculty of Arts at the University of Sydney, December 2007—December 2008
Sessional Lecturer, Philosophy, The University of Queensland, March 2008—December 2008
Postdoctoral Research Fellow, The University of Queensland, March 2005—February 2008 — Preparing Species book for publication and carrying out further historical and scientific literature research to complete it. Various papers and talks. Lectures and tutoring for subject. Coordinating podcasting and assisting with the organisation of 1st—4th Queensland Biohumanities Conferences. Supervisor and professor was Paul E. Griffiths under a Federation Fellowship FF0457917. After the dissolution of the Biohumanities Project, my postdoctoral fellowship was in the Philosophy Department.
Non-academic (full-time unless indicated)
Head, Communication Services, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, August 1994 — February 2005.
Manager, Publishing, Monash University, 1992—1994.
Manager, Publishing & Advertising, Monash University, 1990—1992.
Public Relations Manager, Chisholm Institute of Technology, (which merged with Monash on 1 July 1990), 1986—1990.
Publicity and Publications Officer, Road Construction Authority, 1985—86.
Information Officer, City of Nunawading, 1983—85.
Media Officer, Swinburne Institute of Technology Student Union, 1982—83.
Information Officer, City of Hawthorn, part-time, 1981.
Graphic Artist and Subeditor, Joint Board of Christian Education of Australia and New Zealand, Full- and part-time 1977—80.
Layout Artist and Subeditor, Uniting Church newspaper, Church and Nation, Part-time 1978—80.
Graphic Artist, Anglican Information Office, part-time 1976—77.
Various positions, 36 Media, Publisher of On Being, a religious monthly colour magazine, 1975—77.
Clerk, Commonwealth Public Service 1974—75.
Copyboy, Printers Assistant, Herald & Weekly Times 1973—74.17 September 2012